Magnetic fields are an integral part of modern life, from the motors that power our appliances to the sensors that detect movement in our smartphones. These fields are produced by magnets, which come in two main types: permanent and non-permanent.
Permanent magnets, such as those made from Neodymium (NdFeB), Samarium Cobalt (SmCo), AlNiCo, and Ferrite, have a continuous magnetic field and do not require any external power source.
Electromagnets, classified as non-permanent magnets, produce a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through them.
Both types of magnets can attract ferrous materials and can be used for various applications. But what is the difference between permanent magnets and electromagnets, and how do I decide which type is right for my needs?
This post will help us understand the options available and make an informed decision.
Materials Components Differences
Permanent magnets are made of naturally magnetic materials, such as iron, cobalt, and nickel. These materials are known as ferromagnetic materials and have a high magnetic permeability, which means they can easily be magnetized and hold a magnetic field.
Electromagnets are made of a coil of wire wrapped around a core of ferromagnetic material, such as iron. The wire is typically made of copper or aluminum and is insulated with a non-conductive material, such as plastic or rubber. The core can be made of iron or another ferromagnetic material, which helps enhance the coil’s magnetic field.
Magnetic Properties Differences
In terms of their magnetic properties, permanent magnets are generally stronger and more stable than electromagnets, but electromagnets are more versatile and can produce a variable magnetic field.
- The stability of the magnetic field: Permanent magnets have a stable, long-lasting magnetic field that does not change over time, while the magnetic field of an electromagnet can be easily turned on and off by controlling the flow of electric current. This allows electromagnets to be used in applications that require a variable magnetic field,
- Intensity: Permanent magnets have a fixed magnetic field strength, while the strength of the magnetic field produced by an electromagnet can be varied by adjusting the intensity of the electric current flowing through it.
- Resistance to Demagnetization: Permanent magnets also have a higher resistance to demagnetization, meaning they are less likely to lose their magnetism over time. On the other hand, Electromagnets can lose their magnetism if the power source is turned off or the core becomes saturated with magnetic flux.
Magnetic Field Strength Differences
The strength of a magnet’s magnetic field is measured in units of gauss or tesla.
Permanent magnets generally have a higher magnetic field strength than electromagnets. This is because the materials used to make permanent magnets, such as iron, cobalt, and nickel, are naturally magnetic and have a high magnetic permeability.
The strength of the magnetic field produced by an electromagnet can be varied by adjusting the intensity of the electric current flowing through it and the number of turns in the coil. However, the strength of the magnetic field is typically lower than that of a permanent magnet of the same size.
Loss of Magnetism Differences
Permanent magnets can hold their magnetism indefinitely without needing an external power source. However, if a permanent magnet is heated to a high temperature, it can lose its magnetism and must be re-magnetized to recover its magnetic properties. The maximum temperature at which a permanent magnet can be heated without losing its magnetism is called the Curie temperature. It varies depending on the type of material used to make the magnet.
Electromagnets lose their magnetism every time the electric current is turned off, but they can regain their magnetic properties simply by turning the current back on. This makes electromagnets more versatile and allows them to be used in a wider range of applications that require a temporary or adjustable magnetic field, as their magnetic field can be easily turned on and off as needed.
Magnets’ Poles Differences
All magnets have north and south poles, and the strength of the magnetic field is typically strongest at the poles.
In a permanent magnet, the north and south poles are fixed and cannot be changed. This means that the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is always oriented in the same direction, and the strength of the field is constant.
Electromagnets can have their north and south poles reversed by reversing the direction of the electric current flowing through the coil. This means that the magnetic field of an electromagnet can be easily changed and oriented in different directions. The strength of the magnetic field can also be varied by adjusting the current’s intensity and the coil’s number of turns.
Main Types Differences
Main types of permanent magnets:
1. Neodymium magnets (NdFeB): These are a type of rare earth magnet made of an alloy of neodymium, iron, and boron. They are the strongest permanent magnet type and are commonly used in various applications, including motors, generators, and sensors.
2. Samarium cobalt (SmCo): These are also a type of rare earth magnet made of an alloy of samarium and cobalt. They have a high resistance to demagnetization and are often used in applications that require a stable magnetic field, such as motors and generators.
3. AlNiCo: These are permanent magnets made of an alloy of aluminum, nickel, cobalt, and iron. They have a lower magnetic field strength than neodymium or samarium cobalt magnets, but they have a high resistance to demagnetization and can operate at high temperatures.
4. Ferrite magnets: These are permanent magnets made of ceramic material containing iron oxide and other metallic elements. They have a lower magnetic field strength than rare earth magnets but are less expensive and more widely available. Ferrite magnets are commonly used in applications such as speakers and motors.
Main types of electromagnets:
Electromagnets can also be classified based on their applications. Some common types of electromagnets include:
1. Brake electromagnets: These are electromagnets used in electrical transmission systems as mechanical brakes for motors. They are designed to stop the motor accurately and quickly and are commonly used in applications such as conveyor belts and elevators.
2. Lifting electromagnets: These are electromagnets used to lift and transport ferromagnetic materials, such as steel and iron ore. They are commonly used in cranes and other lifting equipment.
3. Valve electromagnets: These are used to actuate valve mechanisms by applying a magnetic force to the valve. They are commonly used in hydraulic and pneumatic systems to control the flow of fluids.
4. Traction electromagnets: These are used to drive and control mechanical devices for automatic control tasks. They are commonly used in applications such as robots and automated assembly lines.
When choosing a magnet, it is crucial to consider the application of the magnet that will be used.
Permanent Magnets Application:
In situations where it is inconvenient to use electricity, such as in remote locations or areas with unreliable power, or where there is no need to adjust the magnetic field, permanent magnets are the better choice. They do not require an external power source to produce a magnetic field, and their magnetic properties are fixed.
Permanent magnets have a wide range of applications, including:
- Motors: Permanent magnets are used in electric motors to produce rotational motion. They are used in various motors, including those found in automobiles, appliances, and power tools.
- Generators: Permanent magnets are used in generators to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
- Sensors: Permanent magnets are used to detect the presence of ferromagnetic materials or to measure changes in a magnetic field.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Permanent magnets are used in MRI machines to produce a strong, stable magnetic field for imaging the body.
- Separation and sorting: Permanent magnets are used to separate and sort ferromagnetic materials, such as iron ore, from non-magnetic materials.
- Magnetic resonance force microscopy: Permanent magnets are used to measure the properties of small samples at the nanoscale.
- Educational and scientific demonstrations: Permanent magnets are often used in educational and scientific demonstrations to illustrate the principles of magnetism.
- Magnetic storage: Permanent magnets are used in hard drives and other types of magnetic storage to store data.
- Speakers: Permanent magnets are used in speakers to produce sound waves.
Electromagnets are more suitable for applications that require a magnetic field change or remote control. They can be turned on and off by controlling the flow of electric current, and their magnetic field can be adjusted by changing the current strength or the number of turns in the coil. This makes them useful in applications requiring a variable or controlled magnetic field.
Electromagnets have a wide range of applications, including:
- Cranes: Electromagnets are used in industrial cranes to lift heavy steel plates, containers, and scrap iron. They can handle high electric currents to produce a strong magnetic field.
- Telephones: Electromagnets are used in telephones to transmit sound signals. When you speak on a telephone, your voice is converted into an electrical signal sent through the telephone. At the other end, an electromagnet converts the electrical signal back into sound waves that can be heard by the person you are speaking to.
- Ammeters, voltmeters, and current meters: Electromagnets are used in these devices to measure the flow of electric current.
- Doorbells and other signaling devices: Electromagnets are used in doorbells to create a ringing sound when the button is pressed.
- Automation control equipment: Electromagnets are used in industrial and office automation to control mechanical processes.
- Packaging machinery, medical equipment, food machinery, textile machinery, and other types of equipment.
- Electromagnetic relays: Electromagnets are used in these devices to control the flow of electricity.
- Maglev trains: Electromagnets are used in maglev (magnetic levitation) trains to lift and propel the train using magnetic forces.
Permanent Magnet Or Electromagnet in EVs
Both permanent magnets and electromagnets are used in electric vehicles (EVs).
Permanent magnets are used in EV motors to produce a rotational force that drives the wheels. EV motors are typically brushless DC motors, which use a permanent magnet rotor and a stator made of wound copper wire to produce a rotating magnetic field. The rotor is made of a stack of permanent magnets, while the stator is made of a coil of copper wire. When an electric current is applied to the stator, it creates a magnetic field that interacts with its magnetic field, causing the rotor to rotate.
Electromagnets are also used in EVs in various applications, such as in the charging system and the suspension system. The charging system of an EV uses an electromagnet to transfer electricity from the charging station to the battery of the vehicle. The suspension system of an EV may use electromagnets to adjust the suspension of the vehicle based on the road conditions and the load on the vehicle.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)
Similarities between Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets
Both permanent magnets and electromagnets can produce a magnetic field and attract ferrous materials. Still, they differ in the way they generate and maintain their magnetic fields and in the situations in which they are most helpful.
Why soft iron is used in an electromagnet?
Soft iron is often used as the core material for electromagnets because it has a low coercivity, which means it can easily be magnetized and demagnetized. When an electric current is applied to the coil of an electromagnet, the soft iron core becomes magnetized and produces a magnetic field. When the electric current is removed, the magnetic field disappears, and the iron core returns to its original state.
The use of soft iron allows the electromagnet to quickly and easily switch between a magnetized and demagnetized state, which is helpful in many applications. For example, an electromagnet could lift heavy steel objects in a scrap yard by magnetizing the iron core when it needs to be picked up and demagnetizing it when it needs to be moved to a different location.
In contrast, hard iron or steel materials have a high coercivity and are more difficult to magnetize and demagnetize. These materials are better suited for permanent magnets because they can retain their magnetic field over an extended period.
What is electromagnetic force?
The electromagnetic force is a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. It is a fundamental force of nature, along with gravity and strong and weak nuclear forces. The electromagnetic force is responsible for many familiar phenomena, including the attraction and repulsion of charged objects, the force exerted on a conductor carrying an electric current in a magnetic field, and the interaction between magnets.
The strength of the electromagnetic force between two charged particles depends on the magnitude of the charges and the distance between them. Like charges (such as two positive or two negative charges) repel each other, while opposite charges (such as a positive and a negative charge) attract each other. The force decreases as the distance between the charges increases, following an inverse square law.
The electromagnetic force is mediated by the exchange of virtual particles known as photons. These particles carry the electromagnetic force between charged particles and are responsible for the various electromagnetic phenomena we observe in the world around us.
Permanent magnets and electromagnets are both useful for a variety of applications. Permanent magnets are suitable for situations where electricity is inconvenient, or there is no need to adjust the magnetic field. At the same time, electromagnets are helpful for applications requiring the ability to change the magnetic field or remote control.
If you have questions about which type of magnet is best for your application, JdaMagnet company can help. Our team of experts can assist you in choosing the right magnet for your needs and provide you with high-quality magnets that are perfect for your application. Don’t hesitate to contact us with any questions you may have.