Demagnetization Curve Of A Permanent Magnet

Table of Contents

A demagnetization curve is a graphical representation of the strength of a permanent magnet as a function of an external demagnetizing field. The curve is typically plotted on a graph with the magnetization (expressed in units of magnetic moment per unit volume) on the vertical axis and the external field strength on the horizontal axis.

Magnetization is usually expressed in units of magnetic flux density, such as tesla (T) or gauss (G). The external field strength is usually expressed in units of magnetic field strength, such as amperes per meter (A/m) or oersteds (Oe).

Image Credit: Springer

Understanding The Demagnetization Curve

To read and understand the demagnetization curve, we need to interpret the shape of the curve, and the values plotted on the graph. Here are some key points to consider:

The Magnetization Axis And The External Field Strength Axis

The magnetization axis is the vertical axis, usually expressed in units of magnetic flux density (e.g., tesla or gauss). The external field strength axis is the horizontal axis, which is usually expressed in units of magnetic field strength (e.g., amperes per meter or oersteds).

The Slope Of The Demagnetization Curve

The slope of the demagnetization curve indicates the magnet’s resistance to demagnetization or how easily an external field can demagnetize it.

A steep slope indicates a high resistance to demagnetization, meaning it will take a stronger external field to demagnetize the magnet. This can be useful for applications where the magnet needs to maintain its magnetic field strength under high external conditions, such as motors or generators.

On the other hand, a shallow slope indicates a low resistance to demagnetization, meaning it will take a weaker external field to demagnetize the magnet. This can be useful for applications where the magnet needs to be easily demagnetized, such as in magnetic switches or relays.

Residual Magnetization

The point at which the demagnetization curve intersects the horizontal axis, also known as the magnetization axis, indicates the residual magnetization of the magnet. This is the magnetization of the magnet when the external field is zero.

Residual magnetization is an important parameter that reflects the intrinsic magnetic properties of the magnet material. It represents the magnetization that remains in the magnet even when the external field is removed. The residual magnetization can be affected by various factors, such as the type of magnet material, the magnetization technique, and the history of the magnet (e.g., whether it has been subjected to mechanical stress or temperature changes).

Residual magnetization is often used as a reference point for comparing the performance of different magnets or determining a magnet’s magnetization under different external field conditions. For example, suppose the demagnetization curve shows that the magnetization decreases as the external field strength increases. In that case, the residual magnetization can be used as a starting point to calculate the magnetization at any other point on the curve.

Coercive Force

The point at which the demagnetization curve intersects the vertical axis, also known as the external field strength axis, indicates the coercive force of the magnet. The coercive force is the maximum external field strength the magnet can withstand before it becomes demagnetized.

The coercive force is an important parameter that reflects the magnetic stability of the magnet. A magnet with a high coercive force will be more resistant to demagnetization, meaning it will take a stronger external field to demagnetize it.

On the other hand, a magnet with a low coercive force will be more easily demagnetized, meaning it will take a weaker external field to demagnetize it.

The Shape Of The Demagnetization Curve

The shape of the curve can vary depending on the type of magnet and how it is used. For example, some magnets may have a single, well-defined curve, while others may have multiple curves corresponding to different magnetization states.

Image Credit: Researchgate

Single curve: This type of curve reflects the magnet’s behavior under various external field conditions. It shows how the magnet’s magnetization changes as the external field strength increases.

Hysteresis curve: This type of curve reflects the behavior of the magnet when it is magnetized and demagnetized repeatedly. It consists of two loops, one for the magnetization process and one for the demagnetization process. The magnetization process loop shows how the magnetization of the magnet increases as the external field strength increases, while the demagnetization process loop shows how the magnetization decreases as the external field strength decreases.

Multiple curves: This type of curve reflects the behavior of the magnet when it is magnetized in different directions. It shows how the magnetization varies with the direction of magnetization.

You can better understand the magnet’s performance and behavior under different external field conditions by interpreting the shape and values plotted on the demagnetization curve. This can be useful for designing and optimizing magnetic circuits and devices, such as motors, generators, and transformers.

The Importance Of Demagnetization Curves?

Demagnetization curves are essential because they provide a detailed understanding of the magnetic properties of a magnet, which can be useful for various applications. Some of the key reasons why demagnetization curves are essential include:

Characterizing magnet performance:

Demagnetization curves provide valuable information about the magnet’s performance, including its resistance to demagnetization, residual magnetization, and coercive force. These parameters are essential for comparing the performance of different magnets or determining a magnet’s magnetization under different external field conditions.

Designing magnetic circuits and devices:

Demagnetization curves can be used to design and optimize magnetic circuits and devices, such as motors, generators, and transformers. By understanding the shape of the demagnetization curve, we can gain insights into how the magnet will behave under different external field conditions and use this information to design more efficient and reliable magnetic circuits and devices.

Understanding magnetic behavior:

Demagnetization curves provide insights into the magnetic behavior of the magnet, including its magnetization direction and magnetic stability. This can be useful for understanding the fundamental properties of the magnet and how it will behave under different conditions.

Quality control:

Demagnetization curves can ensure the quality of permanent magnets by verifying that they meet the required performance specifications. By comparing the demagnetization curve of a magnet to the manufacturer’s specification, we can ensure that the magnet is of good quality and will perform as expected.

How To Create A Demagnetization Curve?

To create a demagnetization curve, a permanent magnet is subjected to a series of increasing external fields, and the magnetization is measured at each field strength:

Step 1: Prepare the magnet: Make sure the magnet is clean and free of any contaminants that could affect its performance. You may also want to degauss the magnet to remove any residual magnetization from previous uses.

Step 2: Set up the test equipment: You will need a magnetometer to measure the magnetization and a device to apply an external magnetic field to the magnet, such as a Helmholtz coil. Make sure the equipment is calibrated and ready to use.

Step 3: Measure the magnetization: Slowly increase the external field strength applied to the magnet using the Helmholtz coil, and measure the magnetization at each point using the magnetometer. Record the results in a table or spreadsheet.

Step 4: Plot the results: Plot the magnetization values on the vertical axis and the external field strength values on the horizontal axis. Connect the data points to create a curve.

Step 5: Repeat the measurements: To create a more accurate demagnetization curve, you may want to repeat the measurements at different temperatures or under different humidity conditions.

Step 6: Analyze the results: Interpret the shape of the curve, and the values plotted on it to gain insights into the magnet’s performance under different external field conditions.

Demagnetization Curve And The Hysteresis Curve

The demagnetization curve and the hysteresis curve are related, but they are different.

The demagnetization curve, as mentioned above, reflects the behavior of the magnet under different external field conditions

The hysteresis curve is a specific type of demagnetization curve that reflects the magnet’s behavior when it is magnetized and demagnetized repeatedly. It consists of two loops, one for the magnetization process and one for the demagnetization process. The magnetization process loop shows how the magnetization of the magnet increases as the external field strength increases, while the demagnetization process loop shows how the magnetization decreases as the external field strength decreases. The hysteresis curve can provide valuable information about the energy losses that occur during the magnetization and demagnetization processes.

More Than Just Your Supplier

As a manufacturer of permanent magnets, particularly neodymium magnets, for over 23 years, we have extensive knowledge and experience in the field. This sets us apart from our competitors and enables our engineering team to provide top-notch service to our customers.

Our applications engineering team works closely with customers to design magnetic solutions and improve the performance of their designs. In addition to applications engineering, we offer services such as magnetic circuit design and research and development. We strive to be more than just a supplier to our customers but a partner in their success.

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